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Immunization: How Vaccines Work - Medical Animation
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Immunization: How Vaccines Work - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: Immunization is the process of becoming immune to or protected against disease, usually by receiving a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate your immune system to protect you from certain diseases so you wont get sick or get an infection. Normally, the organs and cells of your immune system defend your body from harmful germs, such as bacteria and viruses. Immune cells are constantly circulating through your body. They monitor certain substances on the surfaces of cells, called antigens. Healthy cells have different antigens than diseased body cells or foreign invaders in the body. Immune cells usually ignore the antigens on healthy cells. But, when immune cells come across antigens on germs, they destroy the germ. Afterward, the immune cell displays the germ's antigen on its surface. This activates other types of immune cells to help get rid of the infection. For example, some activated immune cells recognize the antigen on infected body cells and then destroy them. Other activated immune cells, called plasma cells, make molecules called antibodies. These antibodies travel through your body and lock on only to germs that have its specific antigen. This marks the germ for destruction. Then other immune cells attack the germs that have these antibodies. Once the infection is gone, some of the immune cells that were exposed to the antigen become memory immune cells. In the future, if the same type of germ infects your body again, memory immune cells will be ready to destroy it so you dont get sick. This is called natural immunity. In many cases it will last your whole lifetime. The problem with getting natural immunity from having the disease itself, is that some naturally-acquired infections can cause serious complications or may even be deadly. For example, polio can result in permanent paralysis, or death. Measles can cause swelling of the brain, resulting in permanent brain damage or death, especially in children under age five. And, whooping cough, also known as pertussis, can cause complications such as pneumonia, slowed or stopped breathing, and death, especially in babies under one year of age. While symptoms may not be severe in all people, its not possible to know who will be infected enough to become very ill or even die. Vaccines can protect you from getting these diseases and their harmful symptoms. Each vaccine contains a small amount of weakened or killed germs. Usually, you receive a vaccine as a shot. Inside your body, the germ particles in the vaccine teach your immune cells to attack these germs. This process doesnt make you sick, but it does cause your body to make memory cells and antibodies for those germs. As a result, if that germ infects your body later in life, your immune system is ready to fight the infection so that you dont get sick. The main types of vaccines include live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, toxoid vaccines, and subunit and conjugate vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines use a live, but weakened germs. They are most like a natural infections and provide a strong disease immunity. Examples are the measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, and flu nasal spray vaccines. Inactive vaccines use inactive or killed germs. You may need several doses, or booster shots, over time. Examples are the hepatitis A, flu, polio, and rabies vaccines. Toxoid vaccines protect against harmful substances made by germs called toxins. They use weakened versions of the toxins, called toxoids. You may need booster shots to maintain protection against diseases. Examples are the diphtheria and tetanus parts of the DTaP vaccine. Subunit and conjugate vaccines use only a specific part of a germ. They provide strong immunity to that key part of the germ. These vaccines may also require booster shots. Examples are the pertussis part of the DTaP vaccine and the hepatitis B vaccine. Its important to know that vaccine not only protect you, but your community as well. Many diseases that vaccines prevent spread from person to person. When only a few people in your community are vaccinated, the risk of a disease outbreak is high. But, if most people are vaccinated, its much less likely for a disease to spread. This is called community, or herd immunity. Herd immunity is especially important to protect people who cant be vaccinated. This includes people with weakened immune systems, serious allergies, or other health conditions. Vaccines protect you, your family, and your community from diseases that can be dangerous or even deadly. To find out more about vaccines, talk to your healthcare provider.

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What attorneys say about MLA and The Doe Report:
"Our practice involves medical negligence cases exclusively. We have six attorneys and one physician on staff. We have used Medical Legal Art's staff for every one of our cases over the past 12 years and have found their services to be extraordinary. The transformation of medical records into powerful graphic images has without fail been handled expertly, expeditiously and effectively translating into superb results for our clients, both in the courtroom and in settlement. Every case can benefit from their excellent work and we unqualifiedly recommend their services. They are the best!"

Chris Otorowski
Morrow and Otorowski
Bainbridge Island, Washington

"It is my experience that it's much more effective to show a jury what happened than simply to tell a jury what happened. In this day and age where people are used to getting information visually, through television and other visual media, I would be at a disadvantage using only words.

I teach a Litigation Process class at the University of Baltimore Law Schooland use [Medical Legal Art's] animation in my class. Students always saythat they never really understood what happened to [to my client] until theysaw the animation.

Animations are powerful communication tools that should be used wheneverpossible to persuade juries."

Andrew G. Slutkin
Snyder Slutkin & Kopec
Baltimore, MD
"Thank you very much for the great work on the medical exhibits. Our trial resulted in a $16 million verdict for a 9 year old boy with catastrophic injuries, and the medical illustrations definitely played key role in the trial."

David Cutt
Brayton Purcell
Salt Lake City, UT

"Thank you for the wonderful illustrations. The case resulted in a defense verdict last Friday. I know [our medical expert witness] presented some challenges for you and I appreciate how you were able to work with him."

Robert F. Donnelly
Goodman Allen & Filetti, PLLC
Richmond, VA

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