Follow us On YouTube Follow us On FaceBook



or
Search Language
Browse
Medical Animations
Medical Animation Titles
Custom Legal Animations
Patient Health Articles
Most Recent Uploads
Body Systems/Regions
Anatomy & Physiology
Diseases & Conditions
Cells & Tissues
Diagnostics & Surgery
Cardiovascular System
Digestive System
Integumentary System
Nervous System
Reproductive System
Respiratory System
Back and Spine
Foot and Ankle
Head and Neck
Hip
Knee
Shoulder
Thorax
Medical Specialties
Cancer
Cardiology
Dentistry
Editorial
Neurology/Neurosurgery
Ob/Gyn
Orthopedics
Pediatrics
Account
Administrator Login

Biology: Genetics: 10: DNA and RNA - DNA Replication - Medical Animation

 

This animation may only be used in support of a single legal proceeding and for no other purpose. Read our License Agreement for details. To license this image for other purposes, click here.

Ready to License?

Item #NSV16037 — Source #1

Order by phone: (800) 338-5954

Biology: Genetics: 10: DNA and RNA - DNA Replication - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: Let's take a look at DNA replication, the process in which DNA copies itself. Why does DNA need to copy itself? Well, before a cell divides during mitosis, it must make a copy of its original DNA. This ensures that both resulting daughter cells will have DNA that is identical to the original cell's DNA. So at what point in the cell cycle does DNA replication happen? DNA is copied or replicated during the S phase of the cell cycle. A good way to remember this is that S stands for synthesis, which means to make. Now, let's see how DNA replicates during the S phase. If we zoom into the nucleus, we can see the DNA molecules two strands or sides twisted together in the classic double-helix formation. The two strands are connected by hydrogen bonds between their nitrogenous bases. The first step of replication begins with an enzyme called DNA helicase. The suffix A-S-E or ASE tells you right away that helicase is an enzyme. Helicase unwinds and then separates the two sides of the DNA molecule by breaking the hydrogen bonds between their nitrogenous bases. Each separate half of the DNA can now serve as a template or pattern for the creation of a new strand of DNA. This separation exposes all of the nitrogenous bases on both sides of the DNA to the environment within the nucleus where free nucleotides are present. This brings us to the second step in DNA replication, the creation of two new identical DNA strands. An enzyme that assists in this process is called DNA polymerase. It adds free nucleotides available in the nucleus to the original template strands. DNA polymerase does this by creating new hydrogen bonds between the available nitrogenous bases of the free nucleotides and those on both sides of the original DNA molecule. New nucleotides are added to the template strands following the base pair rule of nitrogenous bases. Remember, in DNA, adenine always bonds with thymine. Thymine always bonds with adenine. Guanine always bonds with cytosine, and cytosine always bonds with guanine. So these newly attached nucleotides form a mirror image or complementary strand on each template strand of the original DNA. As a result of this replication process, two duplicate molecules of DNA are produced from the original DNA molecule. With DNA replication now completed, the cell is ready to begin mitosis. We will cover mitosis in another video. In summary, DNA replication is a process in which DNA duplicates itself, making an identical copy. Replication occurs during the S phase of the cell cycle when a somatic cell is preparing to divide. DNA replication is necessary so that the two daughter cells produced after mitosis both have DNA that is identical to each other and identical to the DNA in the original cell. At the beginning of replication, an enzyme called DNA helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases and unwinds the DNA molecule. Each side of the original DNA molecule serves as a template for the creation of a new complementary strand of DNA. With the assistance of DNA polymerase and other enzymes, free nucleotides are added to the template strands following the base pair rule. The result of DNA replication is two identical duplicate DNA molecules from the original DNA molecule. ♪ [music] ♪

YOU MAY ALSO WANT TO REVIEW THESE ITEMS:
Biology: Chemistry in Biology: 16: Proteins
Biology: Chemistry in Biology: 16: Proteins - NSV16038
Medical Animation
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Biology: Chemistry in Biology: 04: Chemical Compounds
Biology: Chemistry in Biology: 04: Chemical Compounds - NSV15015
Medical Animation
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Biology: Biology Basics: 02: Controlled Experiments
Biology: Biology Basics: 02: Controlled Experiments - NSV15012
Medical Animation
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Biology: Biology Basics: 04: Qualitative and Quantitative Data
Biology: Biology Basics: 04: Qualitative and Quantitative Data - NSV16031
Medical Animation
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Biology: Biology Basics: 01: Scientific Method
Biology: Biology Basics: 01: Scientific Method - NSV16035
Medical Animation
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Biology: The Cell: 09: Cell Division - The Cell Cycle
Biology: The Cell: 09: Cell Division - The Cell Cycle - NSV15004
Medical Animation
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
What attorneys say about MLA and The Doe Report:
"Whether it's demonstrating a rotator cuff tear, neck movement a few milliseconds after rear impact, or a proposed lumbar fusion, the Doe Report represents an instant on-line database of medical illustration for health-care and legal professionals.

Illustrations can be purchased 'as is' or modified within hours and sent either electronically or mounted on posterboard. An illustration is worth a thousand words, as juries perk up and look intently to capture concepts that are otherwise too abstract. Start with good illustrations, a clear and direct voice, a view of the jury as 12 medical students on day one of training, and your expert testimony becomes a pleasure, even on cross examination. An experienced trial lawyer should also emphasize these illustrations at the end of trial, as a means of visually reinforcing key concepts covered.

As a treating physician, I also use these accurate illustrations to educate my own patients about their medical conditions. The Doe Report is an invaluable resource, and its authors at MLA have always been a pleasure to work with."

Richard E. Seroussi M.D., M.Sc.
Diplomate, American Boards of Electrodiagnostic Medicine and PM&R
Seattle Spine & Rehabilitation Medicine
www.seattlespine.info

"Our firm was able to settle our case at an all day mediation yesterday and I am confident that the detail and overall appearance of the medical illustrations significantly contributed to the settlement. When we require medical illustrations in the future, I will be sure to contact [MLA]."

Noel Turner, III
Burts, Turner, Rhodes & Thompson
Spartanburg, SC

"I would like to thank all of you at Medical Legal Art for all the assistance you provided. It was a result of the excellent, timely work that we were able to conclude the case successfully.

I feel very confident that our paths will cross again."

Fritz G. Faerber
Faerber & Anderson, P.C.
St. Louis, MO

"For modern audiences, it is absolutely essential to use medical demonstrative evidence to convey the severity and extent of physical injuries to a jury. Your company's high quality illustrations of our client's discectomy surgery, combined with strong expert testimony, allowed the jury to fully appreciate the significance of our client's injuries.

We are very pleased with a verdict exceeding $297,000.00, far in excess of the $20,000.00 initially offered by the defendant. The medical demonstrative evidence provided by Medical Legal Art was an asset we could not have afforded to have been without."

Todd J. Kenyon
Attorney at Law
Minneapolis, MN













Awards | Resources | Articles | Become an Affiliate | Free Medical Images | Pregnancy Videos
Credits | Jobs | Help | Medical Legal Blog | Find a Lawyer | Hospital Marketing