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|Osteoarthritis vs Rheumatoid Arthritis - Medical Animation
|MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: |
The bones of the skeletal system support the framework of the body and aid in movement. A joint is any point where two or more bones meet. Joints provide the human body with flexibility, precision, and weight-bearing capacity. The three major categories of joints include fibrous, cartilagenous, and synovial. Synovial joints are those affected by arthritis. Most synovial joints are freely movable, including the shoulders, elbows, knees, and knuckles. The two facing bones of synovial joints are linked by ligaments, covered in cartilage, and separated by a space called the joint cavity. The joint capsule filled with synovial fluid, lined with a membrane, seals the joint cavity. Synovial fluid maintains the cartilage by nourishing it and eliminating waste. Synovial fluid also lubricates the joint, allowing it to move freely. Arthritis is a general term for any disease that includes pain and inflammation of a joint. The two most common types are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis, or degenerative bone and joint disease, is the most common type of arthritis. Weight-bearing activities and repetitive motion activities wear away the cartilage over time. The exposed bony surfaces rub together, causing swelling, pain, and limited movement of the joints. The second most common type of arthritis is rheumatoid arthritis. While the exact cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, it is characterized as an autoimmune disorder by which the immune system attacks the tissues of a joint. The white blood cells of the immune system, particularly mast cells, infiltrate the tissue and release a variety of proteins, including cytokines, inducing swelling, increased vascularization of the joint, growth of the synovial cells, and production of antibodies. Like osteoarthritis, joints become red, painful and swollen. Unlike osteoarthritis, joints are afflicted symmetrically. Eventually, the articular cartilage in a joint with rheumatoid arthritis degenerates, and the joint begins to ossify. Over time, the joint can fuse and become deformed and immobilized, a condition called ankylosis. Although there is no cure for arthritis, medications directed at decreasing inflammation, can control or slow the progression of the disease. Osteoarthritis treatments include acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, exercise, weight control, and surgery in severe cases. Rheumatoid arthritis treatments include NSAIDs, steroids, and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. More recent advances include drugs called biologics, medications that target specific factors, like tumor necrosis factor. In severe cases of joint damage, surgery is sometimes an option for pain relief or improvement of joint mobility. ♪ [music] ♪
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Richard E. Seroussi M.D., M.Sc.
Diplomate, American Boards of Electrodiagnostic Medicine and PM&R
Seattle Spine & Rehabilitation Medicine
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Troy, Yeslow & Koeppel, P.A.
Fort Myers, FL
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Burts, Turner, Rhodes & Thompson
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Pulley Watson King & Lischer