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Osteoarthritis vs Rheumatoid Arthritis - Medical Animation
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Osteoarthritis vs Rheumatoid Arthritis - Medical Animation
The bones of the skeletal system support the framework of the body and aid in movement. A joint is any point where two or more bones meet. Joints provide the human body with flexibility, precision, and weight-bearing capacity. The three major categories of joints include fibrous, cartilagenous, and synovial. Synovial joints are those affected by arthritis. Most synovial joints are freely movable, including the shoulders, elbows, knees, and knuckles. The two facing bones of synovial joints are linked by ligaments, covered in cartilage, and separated by a space called the joint cavity. The joint capsule filled with synovial fluid, lined with a membrane, seals the joint cavity. Synovial fluid maintains the cartilage by nourishing it and eliminating waste. Synovial fluid also lubricates the joint, allowing it to move freely. Arthritis is a general term for any disease that includes pain and inflammation of a joint. The two most common types are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis, or degenerative bone and joint disease, is the most common type of arthritis. Weight-bearing activities and repetitive motion activities wear away the cartilage over time. The exposed bony surfaces rub together, causing swelling, pain, and limited movement of the joints. The second most common type of arthritis is rheumatoid arthritis. While the exact cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, it is characterized as an autoimmune disorder by which the immune system attacks the tissues of a joint. The white blood cells of the immune system, particularly mast cells, infiltrate the tissue and release a variety of proteins, including cytokines, inducing swelling, increased vascularization of the joint, growth of the synovial cells, and production of antibodies. Like osteoarthritis, joints become red, painful and swollen. Unlike osteoarthritis, joints are afflicted symmetrically. Eventually, the articular cartilage in a joint with rheumatoid arthritis degenerates, and the joint begins to ossify. Over time, the joint can fuse and become deformed and immobilized, a condition called ankylosis. Although there is no cure for arthritis, medications directed at decreasing inflammation, can control or slow the progression of the disease. Osteoarthritis treatments include acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, exercise, weight control, and surgery in severe cases. Rheumatoid arthritis treatments include NSAIDs, steroids, and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. More recent advances include drugs called biologics, medications that target specific factors, like tumor necrosis factor. In severe cases of joint damage, surgery is sometimes an option for pain relief or improvement of joint mobility. ♪ [music] ♪

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What attorneys say about MLA and The Doe Report:
"Medical illustrations are essential during trial for any medical malpractice case. The people at MLA have the uncanny ability of creating medical illustrations that simplify the most complex of medical concepts and human anatomy to a lay audience. The exhibits of MLA allow experts to easily describe complex concepts and human anatomy in a manner that could not be done otherwise.

In addition, their custom illustrations show in great detail the extent of injuries suffered and the devastating effects they have had on the client's anatomy. These custom illustration can show, side by side, the body before and after a catastrophic injury. The effect of this juxtaposition is unmatched by any testimony that can be adduced at the time of trial.

Even jurors after trial have commented on the ease with which they grasp medical concepts and anatomy once the MLA exhibits were introduced and used by my experts. Even judges who have "seen it all" are thoroughly impressed by the detail and sophistication of the illustrations.

I would not want to try a case without them."

Lambros Y. Lambrou
New York, NY

"Whether it's demonstrating a rotator cuff tear, neck movement a few milliseconds after rear impact, or a proposed lumbar fusion, the Doe Report represents an instant on-line database of medical illustration for health-care and legal professionals.

Illustrations can be purchased 'as is' or modified within hours and sent either electronically or mounted on posterboard. An illustration is worth a thousand words, as juries perk up and look intently to capture concepts that are otherwise too abstract. Start with good illustrations, a clear and direct voice, a view of the jury as 12 medical students on day one of training, and your expert testimony becomes a pleasure, even on cross examination. An experienced trial lawyer should also emphasize these illustrations at the end of trial, as a means of visually reinforcing key concepts covered.

As a treating physician, I also use these accurate illustrations to educate my own patients about their medical conditions. The Doe Report is an invaluable resource, and its authors at MLA have always been a pleasure to work with."

Richard E. Seroussi M.D., M.Sc.
Diplomate, American Boards of Electrodiagnostic Medicine and PM&R
Seattle Spine & Rehabilitation Medicine

"Medical illustrations are essential evidence in personal injury litigation and MLA is simply the best I've found at producing high-quality illustrations. Your illustrators are not only first-class artists, but creative and responsive. Your turn around time is as good as it gets. My clients have won over $60 million in jury verdicts and I can't recall a case which did not include one of your exhibits. On behalf of those clients, thanks and keep up the great work!"

Kenneth J. Allen
Allen Law Firm
Valparaiso, IN

"I have found that the personalized medical illustrations prepared by Medical Legal Art have been very accurate and helpful. The medical doctors, both treating physicians and expert witnesses, have commented on the accuracy and professionalism of the medical illustrations. Most importantly, your prompt service and attention upon even short notice has been tremendous. I can certainly say that the medical illustrations prepared by Medical Legal Art have assisted us in bringing cases to a successful resolution."

Paul L. Redfearn
The Redfearn Law Firm, P.C.
Kansas City, MO

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