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Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances - Medical Animation
 
This animation may only be used in support of a single legal proceeding and for no other purpose. Read our License Agreement for details. To license this animation for other purposes, click here.

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Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT:
The body's fluids are a mix of water, acids, bases, and dissolved substances known as solutes. The majority of solutes in the extracellular fluid are electrically charged particles called electrolytes. Sodium is one of the most abundant electrolytes. In order to sustain normal cellular functions and blood volume, these elements are maintained within a narrow range in a process called homeostasis. The sodium concentration in blood plasma called serum sodium indicates sodium and water distribution and healthy blood volume. Normal serum sodium is maintained at 135 to 145 milliequivalents per liter. However, a serum sodium measuring less than 135 milliequivalents per liter is known as hyponatremia. The most common type of hyponatremia is dilutional hyponatremia, which involves excess extracellular water relative to sodium concentration. For instance, profuse sweating causes the loss of water, sodium, and other solutes through the skin. In response, thirst is stimulated, and water intake increases, sometimes in excessive amounts. Excess water entering the extracellular fluid in the bloodstream without sodium dilutes the sodium levels in the blood and can lead to dilutional hyponatremia. Likewise, in chronic kidney disease, the kidneys lose the ability to adequately filter the appropriate amount of fluid and waste products from the blood. This abnormal process dilutes blood's sodium levels and leads to water retention in the interstitial spaces. In an attempt to restore water and electrolyte balance, extracellular water moves into cells. The cells swell resulting in damage and the inability to function normally. Treatments for hyponatremia include water restriction, which allows the excess water to move via osmosis from the cell back into the extracellular fluid, administration of hypertonic saline solution, a fluid with a higher sodium concentration than normal extracellular fluid that returns blood sodium to normal levels, and antidiuretic hormone inhibitor medications that help the kidneys retain electrolytes while increasing water excretion in urine. ♪ [music] ♪

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What attorneys say about MLA and The Doe Report:
"We are extremely pleased with the quality of the medical exhibits and the timely manner in which they were provided. I will certainly recommend your company to my business associates who could benefit from your services. Please tell Brian Wilson [Director of Content Development, Senior Medical Illustrator] that he did an exceptional job on these exhibits."

K. Henderson
Dunaway and Associates
Anderson, SC

"Thank you for the splendid medical-legal art work you did for us in the case of a young girl who was blinded by a bb pellet. As a result of your graphic illustrations of this tragic injury, we were able to persuade the insurance company to increase their initial offer of $75,000.00 to $475,000.00, just short of their policy limits.

We simply wanted you to know how pleased we were with your work which, to repeat, was of superlative character, and to let you know that we would be more than willing to serve as a reference in case you ever need one. Many thanks for an extraordinary and dramatic depiction of a very serious injury which clearly "catapulted" the insurance company's offer to a "full and fair" amount to settle this case."

Philip C. Coulter
Coulter &Coulter
Roanoke, VA

"Our practice involves medical negligence cases exclusively. We have six attorneys and one physician on staff. We have used Medical Legal Art's staff for every one of our cases over the past 12 years and have found their services to be extraordinary. The transformation of medical records into powerful graphic images has without fail been handled expertly, expeditiously and effectively translating into superb results for our clients, both in the courtroom and in settlement. Every case can benefit from their excellent work and we unqualifiedly recommend their services. They are the best!"

Chris Otorowski
Morrow and Otorowski
Bainbridge Island, Washington
www.medilaw.com

"For us, the defining feature of effective demonstrative evidence is whether, by itself, the piece will tell the story of the case. Medical legal Art provides our firm with illustrations and animations that are clear and persuasive. Their exhibits tell the story in a way that allows the jury to understand a very complex subject, very quickly."

James D. Horwitz
Koskoff, Koskoff & Bieder, P.C.
Bridgeport, CT













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