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Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances - Medical Animation
 
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Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT:
The body's fluids are a mix of water, acids, bases, and dissolved substances known as solutes. The majority of solutes in the extracellular fluid are electrically charged particles called electrolytes. Sodium is one of the most abundant electrolytes. In order to sustain normal cellular functions and blood volume, these elements are maintained within a narrow range in a process called homeostasis. The sodium concentration in blood plasma called serum sodium indicates sodium and water distribution and healthy blood volume. Normal serum sodium is maintained at 135 to 145 milliequivalents per liter. However, a serum sodium measuring less than 135 milliequivalents per liter is known as hyponatremia. The most common type of hyponatremia is dilutional hyponatremia, which involves excess extracellular water relative to sodium concentration. For instance, profuse sweating causes the loss of water, sodium, and other solutes through the skin. In response, thirst is stimulated, and water intake increases, sometimes in excessive amounts. Excess water entering the extracellular fluid in the bloodstream without sodium dilutes the sodium levels in the blood and can lead to dilutional hyponatremia. Likewise, in chronic kidney disease, the kidneys lose the ability to adequately filter the appropriate amount of fluid and waste products from the blood. This abnormal process dilutes blood's sodium levels and leads to water retention in the interstitial spaces. In an attempt to restore water and electrolyte balance, extracellular water moves into cells. The cells swell resulting in damage and the inability to function normally. Treatments for hyponatremia include water restriction, which allows the excess water to move via osmosis from the cell back into the extracellular fluid, administration of hypertonic saline solution, a fluid with a higher sodium concentration than normal extracellular fluid that returns blood sodium to normal levels, and antidiuretic hormone inhibitor medications that help the kidneys retain electrolytes while increasing water excretion in urine. ♪ [music] ♪

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"We are extremely pleased with the quality of the medical exhibits and the timely manner in which they were provided. I will certainly recommend your company to my business associates who could benefit from your services. Please tell Brian Wilson [Director of Content Development, Senior Medical Illustrator] that he did an exceptional job on these exhibits."

K. Henderson
Dunaway and Associates
Anderson, SC

"I wanted to take some time out to let you know what a wonderful job you did with the 'collapsed lung/fractured rib' illustrations. They were both detailed and accurate. My medical expert was comfortable working with them and he spent at least an hour explaining to the jury the anatomy of the lungs, the ribs and the injuries depicted in the illustrations. Needless to say, the jury was riveted to the doctor during his testimony.

The jury returned a verdict for $800,000.00 and I'm sure we would not have done so well if not for the visualizations we were able to put forth with your assistance. Lastly, my special thanks to Alice [Senior Medical Illustrator] who stayed late on Friday night and patiently dealt with my last minute revisions."

Daniel J. Costello
Proner & Proner
New York, NY

"Thank you for the splendid medical-legal art work you did for us in the case of a young girl who was blinded by a bb pellet. As a result of your graphic illustrations of this tragic injury, we were able to persuade the insurance company to increase their initial offer of $75,000.00 to $475,000.00, just short of their policy limits.

We simply wanted you to know how pleased we were with your work which, to repeat, was of superlative character, and to let you know that we would be more than willing to serve as a reference in case you ever need one. Many thanks for an extraordinary and dramatic depiction of a very serious injury which clearly "catapulted" the insurance company's offer to a "full and fair" amount to settle this case."

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Coulter &Coulter
Roanoke, VA

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Attorney at Law
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