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Protein Synthesis - Medical Animation

 

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Protein Synthesis - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: Protein synthesis is the process by which the body creates proteins. Proteins consist of chains of amino acids. Which amino acids used and their sequence determines each particular protein. The assembly of amino acids into proteins takes place in cells. The first stage, transcription, occurs in the nucleus. The second stage, translation, occurs in the cytoplasm. Transcription is the process of converting instructions for assembling a protein located in the cell's DNA into messenger RNA. The template for building messenger RNA is a genetic sequence along a section of the DNA strand. Each strand of DNA contains nucleotides with complementary bases. Adenine pairs with thymine, and cytosine with guanine. To start transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase attaches to the beginning of the DNA template. A sequence of three DNA bases called a base triplet contains information for assembling each amino acid of a protein. RNA polymerase reads the base triplets to build messenger RNA using free nucleotides. Corresponding messenger RNA triplets are called codons. In mRNA codons, uracil replaces thymine. Once the mRNA is built, certain enzymes remove introns or sections that will not be use to build the protein. Enzymes splice the remaining ends or exons together. Then the functional mRNA leaves the nucleus. Translation is the process of using messenger RNA to assemble amino acids into a protein. The structure that will read the mRNA, called a ribosome, attaches to the mRNA strand. Initiated by a start codon, the ribosome reads each subsequent codon, which signals a transfer RNA molecule that has the matching anti-codon sequence and specific amino acid. The process continues as additional transfer RNA molecules attach, bringing the correct amino acids to build the protein until the protein is completely assembled, signaled by the stop codon. After the assembled protein breaks away from the ribosome, its subunits detach from the mRNA. ♪ [music] ♪

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"I wanted to take some time out to let you know what a wonderful job you did with the 'collapsed lung/fractured rib' illustrations. They were both detailed and accurate. My medical expert was comfortable working with them and he spent at least an hour explaining to the jury the anatomy of the lungs, the ribs and the injuries depicted in the illustrations. Needless to say, the jury was riveted to the doctor during his testimony.

The jury returned a verdict for $800,000.00 and I'm sure we would not have done so well if not for the visualizations we were able to put forth with your assistance. Lastly, my special thanks to Alice [Senior Medical Illustrator] who stayed late on Friday night and patiently dealt with my last minute revisions."

Daniel J. Costello
Proner & Proner
New York, NY

"This past year, your company prepared three medical illustrations for our cases; two in which we received six figure awards; one in which we received a substantial seven figure award. I believe in large part, the amounts obtained were due to the vivid illustrations of my clients' injuries and the impact on the finder of fact."

Donald W. Marcari
Marcari Russotto & Spencer, P.C.
Chesapeake, VA
"Thank you very much for the great work on the medical exhibits. Our trial resulted in a $16 million verdict for a 9 year old boy with catastrophic injuries, and the medical illustrations definitely played key role in the trial."

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Brayton Purcell
Salt Lake City, UT

"Thanks, and your illustrations were effective in a $3 million dollar verdict last Friday."

Joseph M. Prodor
Trial Lawyer
White Rock, British Columbia












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