This animation may only be used in support of a single legal proceeding and for no other purpose. Read our License Agreement for details. To license this image for other purposes, click here.
|02 Transport and Gas Exchange - Medical Animation
|MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: |
The respiratory system regulates oxygen and carbon dioxide levels within the blood. Respiration includes ventilation, gas exchange between the air, blood, and tissues within the body, and the use of oxygen for metabolism. Inhalation allows oxygen to enter the body, pulling air into the nose and mouth, lungs, and into the air sacs called alveoli, where gas exchange takes place. Alveoli move freely when air is inhaled and exhaled. Capillaries are small blood vessels that line the walls of the alveoli. During gas exchange, oxygen enters and carbon dioxide exits the bloodstream via the alveolar-capillary membrane. Once oxygen molecules move from the alveoli into the capillaries, they dissolve into the plasma and enter the red blood cell or erythrocyte. Erythrocytes contain millions of soluble proteins called hemoglobin. Hemoglobin contains four subunits each capable of binding one molecule of oxygen. Once one molecule of oxygen binds to one of the subunits, the other sites bind oxygen more readily. Dissolved and bound oxygen flows through the arterial bloodstream to capillaries within tissues. Upon arrival, carbon dioxide loading of the erythrocyte promotes oxygen unloading. Oxygen metabolism within cells produces carbon dioxide gas as a metabolic waste. Carbon dioxide exits the cells and tissues and is converted into bicarbonate within the erythrocytes. Converting carbon dioxide to bicarbonate releases hydrogen ions that decrease oxygen affinity for hemoglobin, freeing the oxygen to be delivered to tissue cells. After delivering oxygen to the tissues, the carbon dioxide-rich blood returns to the lungs through the venous circulation and then to the pulmonary artery. Inside each erythrocyte, the bicarbonate conversion is reversed, recreating carbon dioxide, which diffuses across the erythrocyte into the alveoli and lungs and is excreted out of the body. ♪ [music] ♪
|What attorneys say about MLA and The Doe Report:
|"For us, the defining feature of effective demonstrative evidence is
whether, by itself, the piece will tell the story of the case. Medical legal
Art provides our firm with illustrations and animations that are clear and
persuasive. Their exhibits tell the story in a way that allows the jury to
understand a very complex subject, very quickly."
James D. Horwitz
Koskoff, Koskoff & Bieder, P.C.
|"At 3 PM it hit me--I needed exhibits of a tracheostomy, a coronary artery
bypass and a deep vein thrombosis--all in time for a for-trial video
deposition the next day. The Doe Report had each exhibit on line. In
addition, I ran across an exhibit I hadn't even thought of: reduced ejection
fraction after a heart attack. Because this was a video deposition, I could
use the e-mail version of the medical exhibit, print it on my color copier,
and let the camera zoom in. For $400, less than one blow-up by one of The
Doe Report's competitors, I got four first-rate exhibits in less than a day.
The Doe Report saved me time and money."
Tracy Kenyon Lischer
Pulley Watson King & Lischer
|"It is with great enthusiasm that I recommend Medical Legal Art. We have
used their services for three years and always found their professionalism,
quality of work, and timely attention to detail to exceed our expectations.
We recently settled two complicated catastrophic injury cases. One medical
malpractice case involving a spinal abscess settled for 3.75 million and the
other involving injuries related to a motor vehicle accident settled for 6.9
million. We consider the artwork provided by MLA to have been invaluable in
helping us to successfully conclude these cases.
I highly recommend MLA to anyone seeking high quality, detailed medical
E. Marcus Davis, Esq.
Davis Zipperman, Krischenbaum & Lotito
|"Medical illustrations are essential during trial for any medical malpractice case. The people at MLA have the uncanny ability of creating medical illustrations that simplify the most complex of medical concepts and human anatomy to a lay audience. The exhibits of MLA allow experts to easily describe complex concepts and human anatomy in a manner that could
not be done otherwise.
In addition, their custom illustrations show in great detail the extent of
injuries suffered and the devastating effects they have had on the client's
anatomy. These custom illustration can show, side by side, the body before
and after a catastrophic injury. The effect of this juxtaposition is
unmatched by any testimony that can be adduced at the time of trial.
Even jurors after trial have commented on the ease with which they grasp
medical concepts and anatomy once the MLA exhibits were introduced and
used by my experts. Even judges who have "seen it all" are thoroughly
impressed by the detail and sophistication of the illustrations.
I would not want to try a case without them."
Lambros Y. Lambrou
McHUGH & LAMBROU, LLP
New York, NY