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Medication Excretion - Medical Animation

 

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Medication Excretion - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: The body filters drugs from the bloodstream and eliminates them in a multi-step process called medication excretion. The kidneys are the major route for drug elimination. Most drugs exit the body either unchanged or as drug metabolites in urine. Generally, health professionals refer to the ability of the kidneys to filter blood as renal function. Nephrons, the functional and anatomical units of the kidney, filter blood, regulate fluid volume and pH, and control levels of electrolytes in the body. Each nephron contains a renal corpuscle and renal tubule. The renal corpuscle includes the Bowman capsule and glomerulus. And the renal tubule is composed of the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting duct. Each component plays a role in renal drug excretion, a four-step process that allows the kidneys to filter and eliminate drugs from the body. These steps are: glomerular filtration, passive tubular reabsorption, active tubular secretion, and excretion. Blood flows into the glomerulus via a blood vessel larger in diameter than the vessel draining blood from the glomerulus. This difference in diameter creates the high blood pressure necessary to filter wastes from the blood. The glomerulus functions as a molecular sieve. Waste materials in water pass through the sieve, while most normal proteins and cells are kept in the bloodstream. Glomerular filtration removes low-molecular-weight drugs from the bloodstream. The process of passive reabsorption of water, solutes, and ions begins in the proximal tubule, continues in the Henle loop, and ends in the distal and collecting ducts. Water-soluble drugs stay in the tubule, while unionized and lipid-soluble drugs are primarily reabsorbed across renal tubules. After reabsorption, lipid-soluble drugs travel through the bloodstream to the liver where certain liver enzymes, such as the cytochrome P450 enzyme complex, metabolize them into more water-soluble forms. Here we show an example of this process through the metabolism of pentobarbital. Some drugs are not filtered from the blood via the glomerulus. Instead, special anionic and cationic pumps in the walls of the renal tubule actively transport the drugs from the blood into the tubules and collecting duct. Urine from the collecting ducts travel through the ureters where it is collected and stored in the urinary bladder until elimination from the body. Although the kidneys are the major route for drug elimination, medication excretion can also occur in lactating women through their breast milk, exhalation through the lungs, release into bile, and elimination through saliva and sweat. [music]

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What attorneys say about MLA and The Doe Report:
"I thought you might want to know that after we sent a copy of your illustration to the defendants, with a copy to the insurance company, they increased their offer by an additional million dollars and the case was settled for $1,900,000.00.

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O. Fayrell Furr, Jr.
Furr, Henshaw & Ohanesian
Myrtle Beach, SC
www.scmedicalmalpractice.com

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Allen Law Firm
Valparaiso, IN
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"We got a defense verdict yesterday! Your exhibit was extremely helpful in showing the jury how unlikely it is to damage all four of the nerve branches which control the sense of taste."

Karen M. Talbot
Silverman Bernheim & Vogel, P.C.
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"I wanted to take some time out to let you know what a wonderful job you did with the 'collapsed lung/fractured rib' illustrations. They were both detailed and accurate. My medical expert was comfortable working with them and he spent at least an hour explaining to the jury the anatomy of the lungs, the ribs and the injuries depicted in the illustrations. Needless to say, the jury was riveted to the doctor during his testimony.

The jury returned a verdict for $800,000.00 and I'm sure we would not have done so well if not for the visualizations we were able to put forth with your assistance. Lastly, my special thanks to Alice [Senior Medical Illustrator] who stayed late on Friday night and patiently dealt with my last minute revisions."

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Proner & Proner
New York, NY













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