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Biology: The Cell: 01: Structure - Overview of Cell Structure - Medical Animation
 
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Biology: The Cell: 01: Structure - Overview of Cell Structure - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: [music] Cells are the smallest living units of an organism. All cells have three things in common, no matter what type of cell they are. All cells have a cell membrane which separates the inside of the cell from its environment. Cytoplasm, which is a jelly-like fluid, and DNA, which is the cell's genetic material. There are two broad categories of cells. The first category is eukaryotic cells. They have organelles which include the nucleus and other special parts. Eukaryotic cells are more advanced complex cells such as those found in plants and animals. The second category is prokaryotic cells. They don't have a nucleus or membrane-enclosed organelles. They do have genetic material, but it's not contained within a nucleus. Prokaryotic cells are always one-celled or unicellular organisms, such as bacteria. [music] So, what are organelles? Organelle means little organ. Organelles are the specialized parts of a cell that have unique jobs to perform. Let's start with the nucleus, the control center of the cell. The nucleus contains DNA, or genetic material. DNA dictates what the cell is going to do and how it's going to do it. Chromatin is the tangled spread out form of DNA found inside the nuclear membrane. When a cell is ready to divide, DNA condenses into structures known as chromosomes. [music] The nucleus also contains a nucleolus, which is a structure where ribosomes are made. After ribosomes leave the nucleus, they will have the important job of synthesizing, or making, proteins. [music] Outside the nucleus, the ribosomes and the rest of the organelles float around in cytoplasm, which is the jelly-like substance. Ribosomes may wander freely within the cytoplasm or attach to the endoplasmic reticulum, sometimes abbreviated as ER. There are two types of ER. Rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. And smooth ER doesn't have ribosomes attached to it. The endoplasmic reticulum is a membrane-enclosed passageway for transporting materials such as the protein synthesized by ribosomes. Proteins and other materials emerge from the endoplasmic reticulum in small vesicles where the Golgi apparatus, sometimes called the Golgi body, receives them. As proteins move through the Golgi body, they are customized into forms that the cell can use. The Golgi body does this by folding the proteins into useable shapes or adding other materials onto them such as lipids or carbohydrates. Vacuoles are sack-like structures that store different materials. Here in this plant cell, the central vacuole stores water. [music] Going back to the animal cell, you will see an organelle called a lysosome. Lysosomes are the garbage collectors that take in damaged or worn out cell parts. They are filled with enzymes that break down the cellular debris. The mitochondrion is an organelle that is the powerhouse for both animal and plant cells. During a process called cellular respiration, the mitochondria make ATP molecules that provide the energy for all of the cells activities. Cells that need more energy have more mitochondria. [music] Meanwhile, the cell maintains its shape through a cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton includes the thread-like microfilaments which are made of protein, and microtubules which are thin, hollow tubes. Some organisms such as plants that are photoautotrophic, meaning they capture sunlight for energy, have cells with an organelle called a chloroplast. The chloroplast is where photosynthesis happens. It's green because it has a green pigment called chlorophyll. Plant cells also have a cell wall outside of their cell membranes that shape, support, and protect the plant cell. Animal cells never have a cell wall. There are many other unique structures that only some cells have. Here are just a few. In humans, for example, the respiratory tract is lined with cells that have cilia. These are microscopic, hair-like projections that can move in waves. This feature helps trap inhaled particles in the air and expels them when you cough. Another unique feature in some cells is flagella. Some bacteria have flagella. A flagellum is like a little tail that can help a cell move or propel itself. The only human cell that has a flagellum is a sperm cell. In summary, remember, eukaryotic cells are plant and animal cells with a nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. While prokaryotic cells are unicellular organisms without these things. All cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and genetic material. And even though only plant cells have chloroplast, both plant and animal cells have mitochondria. [music]

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What attorneys say about MLA and The Doe Report:
"It is my experience that it's much more effective to show a jury what happened than simply to tell a jury what happened. In this day and age where people are used to getting information visually, through television and other visual media, I would be at a disadvantage using only words.

I teach a Litigation Process class at the University of Baltimore Law Schooland use [Medical Legal Art's] animation in my class. Students always saythat they never really understood what happened to [to my client] until theysaw the animation.

Animations are powerful communication tools that should be used wheneverpossible to persuade juries."

Andrew G. Slutkin
Snyder Slutkin & Kopec
Baltimore, MD
"Our practice involves medical negligence cases exclusively. We have six attorneys and one physician on staff. We have used Medical Legal Art's staff for every one of our cases over the past 12 years and have found their services to be extraordinary. The transformation of medical records into powerful graphic images has without fail been handled expertly, expeditiously and effectively translating into superb results for our clients, both in the courtroom and in settlement. Every case can benefit from their excellent work and we unqualifiedly recommend their services. They are the best!"

Chris Otorowski
Morrow and Otorowski
Bainbridge Island, Washington
www.medilaw.com

"I thought you might want to know that after we sent a copy of your illustration to the defendants, with a copy to the insurance company, they increased their offer by an additional million dollars and the case was settled for $1,900,000.00.

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O. Fayrell Furr, Jr.
Furr, Henshaw & Ohanesian
Myrtle Beach, SC
www.scmedicalmalpractice.com

"[I] have come to rely upon the Doe Report and your great staff of illustrators for all my medical malpractice cases. … Please know that I enthusiastically recommend you to all my colleagues.

Frank Rothermel
Bernhardt & Rothermel












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