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Biology: The Cell: 09: Cell Division - The Cell Cycle - Medical Animation
 
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Biology: The Cell: 09: Cell Division - The Cell Cycle - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: In this lesson, we'll be looking at the cell cycle. This is the lifespan of a eukaryotic somatic cell. A somatic cell is any cell in the body of an organism, except for sex cells such as sperm and egg cells. The cell cycle describes the sequence of cell growth and division. A cell spends most of its life a state called interphase. Interphase has three phases, the G1, S, and G2 phases. Interphase is followed by cell division, which has one phase, the M phase. Together these four phases make up the entire cell cycle. G1 of interphase is sometimes called growth 1 or gap phase 1. In G1, a cell is busy growing and carrying out whatever function it's supposed to do. Note that some cells, such as muscle and nerve cells, exit the cell cycle after G1 because they do not divide again. A cell enters the S phase after it grows to the point where it's no longer able to function well and needs to divide. The S stands for synthesis, which means to make, because a copy of DNA is being made during this phase. Once DNA replication is complete, the cell enters the shortest and the last part of interphase called G2, also known as growth 2 or gap phase 2. Right now, it's enough to know that further preparations for cell division take place in the G2 phase. Now that interphase is over, the cell is ready for cell division, which happens in the M phase. The M phase has two events. The main one is mitosis, which is division of the cell's nucleus, followed by cytokinesis, a division of the cytoplasm. So, at the end of M phase, you have two daughter cells identical to each other and identical to the original cell. Let's review. The cell cycle describes the life cycle of an individual cell. It has four phases, three in interphase and one for cell division. Most cell growth and function happen during G1. The cell enters the S phase when it needs to divide. In this phase the cell replicates its DNA. Replication just means the cell makes a copy of its DNA. In G2, the cell undergoes further preparations for cell division. Finally, we have cell division in the M phase. The M phase consists of mitosis, which is nuclear division, and cytokinesis, or division of the cytoplasm. We'll explore the details of mitosis and cytokinesis separately. [music]

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"[I] have come to rely upon the Doe Report and your great staff of illustrators for all my medical malpractice cases. … Please know that I enthusiastically recommend you to all my colleagues.

Frank Rothermel
Bernhardt & Rothermel
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I appreciate your help!"

O. Fayrell Furr, Jr.
Furr, Henshaw & Ohanesian
Myrtle Beach, SC
www.scmedicalmalpractice.com

"Whether it's demonstrating a rotator cuff tear, neck movement a few milliseconds after rear impact, or a proposed lumbar fusion, the Doe Report represents an instant on-line database of medical illustration for health-care and legal professionals.

Illustrations can be purchased 'as is' or modified within hours and sent either electronically or mounted on posterboard. An illustration is worth a thousand words, as juries perk up and look intently to capture concepts that are otherwise too abstract. Start with good illustrations, a clear and direct voice, a view of the jury as 12 medical students on day one of training, and your expert testimony becomes a pleasure, even on cross examination. An experienced trial lawyer should also emphasize these illustrations at the end of trial, as a means of visually reinforcing key concepts covered.

As a treating physician, I also use these accurate illustrations to educate my own patients about their medical conditions. The Doe Report is an invaluable resource, and its authors at MLA have always been a pleasure to work with."

Richard E. Seroussi M.D., M.Sc.
Diplomate, American Boards of Electrodiagnostic Medicine and PM&R
Seattle Spine & Rehabilitation Medicine
www.seattlespine.info

"Medical illustrations are essential during trial for any medical malpractice case. The people at MLA have the uncanny ability of creating medical illustrations that simplify the most complex of medical concepts and human anatomy to a lay audience. The exhibits of MLA allow experts to easily describe complex concepts and human anatomy in a manner that could not be done otherwise.

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I would not want to try a case without them."

Lambros Y. Lambrou
McHUGH & LAMBROU, LLP
New York, NY













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