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Biology: The Cell: 09: Cell Division - The Cell Cycle - Medical Animation
 
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Biology: The Cell: 09: Cell Division - The Cell Cycle - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: In this lesson, we'll be looking at the cell cycle. This is the lifespan of a eukaryotic somatic cell. A somatic cell is any cell in the body of an organism, except for sex cells such as sperm and egg cells. The cell cycle describes the sequence of cell growth and division. A cell spends most of its life a state called interphase. Interphase has three phases, the G1, S, and G2 phases. Interphase is followed by cell division, which has one phase, the M phase. Together these four phases make up the entire cell cycle. G1 of interphase is sometimes called growth 1 or gap phase 1. In G1, a cell is busy growing and carrying out whatever function it's supposed to do. Note that some cells, such as muscle and nerve cells, exit the cell cycle after G1 because they do not divide again. A cell enters the S phase after it grows to the point where it's no longer able to function well and needs to divide. The S stands for synthesis, which means to make, because a copy of DNA is being made during this phase. Once DNA replication is complete, the cell enters the shortest and the last part of interphase called G2, also known as growth 2 or gap phase 2. Right now, it's enough to know that further preparations for cell division take place in the G2 phase. Now that interphase is over, the cell is ready for cell division, which happens in the M phase. The M phase has two events. The main one is mitosis, which is division of the cell's nucleus, followed by cytokinesis, a division of the cytoplasm. So, at the end of M phase, you have two daughter cells identical to each other and identical to the original cell. Let's review. The cell cycle describes the life cycle of an individual cell. It has four phases, three in interphase and one for cell division. Most cell growth and function happen during G1. The cell enters the S phase when it needs to divide. In this phase the cell replicates its DNA. Replication just means the cell makes a copy of its DNA. In G2, the cell undergoes further preparations for cell division. Finally, we have cell division in the M phase. The M phase consists of mitosis, which is nuclear division, and cytokinesis, or division of the cytoplasm. We'll explore the details of mitosis and cytokinesis separately. [music]

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What attorneys say about MLA and The Doe Report:
"This past year, your company prepared three medical illustrations for our cases; two in which we received six figure awards; one in which we received a substantial seven figure award. I believe in large part, the amounts obtained were due to the vivid illustrations of my clients' injuries and the impact on the finder of fact."

Donald W. Marcari
Marcari Russotto & Spencer, P.C.
Chesapeake, VA

"It is my experience that it's much more effective to show a jury what happened than simply to tell a jury what happened. In this day and age where people are used to getting information visually, through television and other visual media, I would be at a disadvantage using only words.

I teach a Litigation Process class at the University of Baltimore Law Schooland use [Medical Legal Art's] animation in my class. Students always saythat they never really understood what happened to [to my client] until theysaw the animation.

Animations are powerful communication tools that should be used wheneverpossible to persuade juries."

Andrew G. Slutkin
Snyder Slutkin & Kopec
Baltimore, MD
"I wanted to take some time out to let you know what a wonderful job you did with the 'collapsed lung/fractured rib' illustrations. They were both detailed and accurate. My medical expert was comfortable working with them and he spent at least an hour explaining to the jury the anatomy of the lungs, the ribs and the injuries depicted in the illustrations. Needless to say, the jury was riveted to the doctor during his testimony.

The jury returned a verdict for $800,000.00 and I'm sure we would not have done so well if not for the visualizations we were able to put forth with your assistance. Lastly, my special thanks to Alice [Senior Medical Illustrator] who stayed late on Friday night and patiently dealt with my last minute revisions."

Daniel J. Costello
Proner & Proner
New York, NY

"Medical illustrations are essential during trial for any medical malpractice case. The people at MLA have the uncanny ability of creating medical illustrations that simplify the most complex of medical concepts and human anatomy to a lay audience. The exhibits of MLA allow experts to easily describe complex concepts and human anatomy in a manner that could not be done otherwise.

In addition, their custom illustrations show in great detail the extent of injuries suffered and the devastating effects they have had on the client's anatomy. These custom illustration can show, side by side, the body before and after a catastrophic injury. The effect of this juxtaposition is unmatched by any testimony that can be adduced at the time of trial.

Even jurors after trial have commented on the ease with which they grasp medical concepts and anatomy once the MLA exhibits were introduced and used by my experts. Even judges who have "seen it all" are thoroughly impressed by the detail and sophistication of the illustrations.

I would not want to try a case without them."

Lambros Y. Lambrou
McHUGH & LAMBROU, LLP
New York, NY













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