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Escoliosis - Medical Animation
 
This animation may only be used in support of a single legal proceeding and for no other purpose. Read our License Agreement for details. To license this animation for other purposes, click here.

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Escoliosis - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT:
La columna vertebral se compone de huesos, llamados vértebras, apilados uno encima del otro. Las vértebras protegen un haz de fibras nerviosas llamado médula espinal. Este se extiende a través de una abertura en el centro de cada vértebra. Las principales secciones de la columna vertebral son las regiones cervical, torácica y lumbar. Si se la mira desde el costado, la columna vertebral normalmente tiene tres curvas. Una C en la columna cervical, una C invertida en la columna torácica, y otra C en la columna lumbar. Vista desde atrás, la columna debe verse completamente recta, arriba y abajo. La escoliosis es una afección donde la columna vertebral tiene una curvatura anormal de lado a lado. La mayoría de los casos de escoliosis no tiene una causa conocida. En algunos casos, la escoliosis puede estar presente en el nacimiento. En otros casos, puede ocurrir con el tiempo. La causa más común en los adultos es la degeneración asimétrica de los discos, que hace que la columna vertebral se incline hacia un lado o el otro. Otras causas pueden incluir parálisis cerebral, parálisis, distrofia muscular, osteoporosis o fracturas vertebrales. Durante la infancia, generalmente la curva de la columna empeora durante los períodos de rápido crecimiento. Si la curva se agrava, puede causar problemas con la postura, para caminar y dolor de espalda. También puede hacer que a los órganos internos les falte espacio y causar problemas de corazón, respiración y digestión. La escoliosis a menudo se trata con un aparato ortopédico para que la curva no siga empeorando. Los médicos deben medir la curva de la columna vertebral a lo largo del tiempo para ver si la órtesis funciona. Para un adolescente, puede ser necesaria una intervención quirúrgica si la órtesis no funciona o si no hay opción de colocar un aparato ortopédico. Para un adulto con escoliosis, puede ser necesaria una intervención quirúrgica si experimenta adormecimiento o debilidad en las piernas. O bien, si tiene dolor de espalda que empeora progresivamente y que no mejora con tratamientos no quirúrgicos. El procedimiento quirúrgico más común para reparar la escoliosis se llama fusión espinal posterior con instrumentación e injerto óseo. Para empezar, el cirujano hace una abertura sobre el área de la curva de la columna vertebral. Las superficies de las vértebras se raspan para hacerlas rugosas y promover que los huesos curen juntos. El cirujano colocará tornillos, ganchos o alambres en las vértebras. Se colocan varillas a lo largo de las vértebras y se unen a tornillos, ganchos o cables con el fin de enderezar la columna vertebral. El cirujano puede extraer pequeños trozos de hueso de la pelvis para usarlos como injertos óseos. En otras ocasiones, el cirujano puede optar por utilizar hueso de donante de un banco de huesos para injertos. El cirujano coloca los injertos de hueso a lo largo de la columna vertebral para permitir que las vértebras crezcan juntas y mantengan la columna vertebral estable. Al final del procedimiento, la incisión se cierra con una sutura.

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Koskoff, Koskoff & Bieder, P.C.
Bridgeport, CT

"Whether it's demonstrating a rotator cuff tear, neck movement a few milliseconds after rear impact, or a proposed lumbar fusion, the Doe Report represents an instant on-line database of medical illustration for health-care and legal professionals.

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Richard E. Seroussi M.D., M.Sc.
Diplomate, American Boards of Electrodiagnostic Medicine and PM&R
Seattle Spine & Rehabilitation Medicine
www.seattlespine.info

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McHUGH & LAMBROU, LLP
New York, NY

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