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Apnea obstructiva del sueño - Medical Animation


This animation may only be used in support of a single legal proceeding and for no other purpose. Read our License Agreement for details. To license this image for other purposes, click here.

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Apnea obstructiva del sueño - Medical Animation
Si tiene apnea obstructiva del sueño, su respiración se detiene por breves periodos de tiempo mientras está dormido. Normalmente, cuando usted respira el aire ingresa a través de su boca y nariz y baja a su garganta, también llamada faringe. El aire fluye por su tubo de aire o tráquea, esparciéndose a través de una estructura parecida a un árbol de tubos pequeños hacia sus pulmones. Cada vez que usted respira, la presión de succión negativa jala los tejidos suaves en su boca y faringe hacia adentro. Los músculos en su faringe responden jalando los tejidos suaves hacia afuera nuevamente, lo que mantiene abierta su vía de aire. Cuando usted duerme, es normal para los músculos de su boca, lengua y faringe relajarse ligeramente, pero no lo suficiente para bloquear la vía de aire. Si tiene apnea obstructiva del sueño, los músculos de su boca y faringe pueden relajarse demasiado. Su lengua cae al tejido suave en el techo de su boca, presionando contra la parte posterior de su garganta. Esto bloquea completamente el flujo de aire hacia sus pulmones. La falta de oxígeno en sus pulmones lo despierta. Usted puede jadear por aire para restablecer el flujo de aire antes de dormir nuevamente. El ciclo de la apnea y despertar puede pasar muchas veces en la noche, evitando un sueño relajado. Los factores que pueden contribuir a la apnea obstructiva incluyen obesidad, porque más grasa puede presentarse en las paredes de la faringe, una quijada pequeña o que retrocede con una vía de aire estrecha, pérdida de tono muscular en su faringe debido al envejecimiento y amígdalas hinchadas. Síntomas comunes de la apnea obstructiva del sueño son roncar, dolores de cabeza matutinos, somnolencia crónica diurna, fatiga, irritabilidad y concentración disminuida. Si es dejada sin tratamiento, la apnea obstructiva del sueño puede conducir a complicaciones como presión arterial alta, enfermedad del corazón, latidos irregulares llamados arritmias, accidente cerebrovascular y diabetes. Su médico puede recomendar cambios en su estilo de vida para tratar la apnea obstructiva del sueño, incluyendo perder peso, dormir de costado, no fumar, y evitar sustancias que puedan ponerlo somnoliento como el alcohol y los sedantes. Para apnea obstructiva del sueño moderada o leve, un dispositivo oral puede mantener su vía abierta. Este dispositivo trabaja jalando su quijada hacia adelante y moviendo tanto su lengua como el techo de su boca, lejos de la parte posterior de su garganta. El tratamiento más efectivo y común para la apnea obstructiva del sueño es una máquina de presión positiva continua de la vía aérea o CPAP. Esta máquina bombea aire a través de un tubo hacia una máscara que encaja en su nariz o en ambos su nariz y su boca. La presión mediana de la máquina CPAP ayuda a mantener abierta la vía de aire, permitiendo que tenga un sueño profundo y tranquilo.

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