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Diverticulosis - Medical Animation

 

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Diverticulosis - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT:

La enfermedad diverticular es una afección que ocurre cuando se forman bolsas hacia el final del intestino grueso. El intestino grueso, también conocido como colon, incluye el ciego, el colon ascendente, el colon transverso, el colon descendente, el colon sigmoideo, el recto y el canal anal. La pared del colon tiene cuatro capas principales: la mucosa, la submucosa, una capa muscular y la serosa exterior. Los vasos sanguíneos llamados vasa recta suministran sangre al colon. Aunque la causa se desconoce, la diverticulosis está asociada a una dieta baja en fibra, al estreñimiento y a una tensión frecuente al hacer las deposiciones. El estreñimiento provoca aumento de la presión dentro del colon. El aumento de la presión puede hacer que la mucosa y submucosa se hernien en una zona debilitada de la pared del colon y que se forme un divertículo. La diverticulosis ocurre cuando existen estos divertículos, pero a menudo no presenta otros síntomas. Por el contrario, la diverticulitis ocurre cuando los divertículos se inflaman. Los síntomas habituales de la diverticulitis son: dolor abdominal en la parte inferior izquierda, fiebre, estreñimiento o diarrea, y disminución del apetito. La diverticulitis puede provocar una acumulación de pus denominada absceso. La hinchazón excesiva y la acumulación de pus pueden conducir a la formación de una perforación a través de la cual el pus y otro material se filtrarán hacia el abdomen. Esta es una condición muy grave y requiere atención médica inmediata. Si usted presenta un caso grave de diverticulitis, es posible que deba someterse a un procedimiento para drenar un absceso. Si el problema persiste, es posible que necesite una cirugía para extirpar la parte afectada del colon. Durante el procedimiento, el cirujano pasará el extremo que queda del colon a través de la pared abdominal, creando una abertura llamada estoma. Después de que el colon haya cicatrizado, podrá ser unido nuevamente al recto. El tratamiento principal para la diverticulosis es el aumento del consumo de alimentos ricos en fibra para suavizar y dar volumen a las heces, lo cual ayuda a estimular el colon para que se contraiga y las elimine. Otros tratamientos para la diverticulitis constan de una dieta de líquidos claros y antibióticos orales.

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