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Cirugía de cataratas: Extracción de cristalino e inserción de prótesis de cristalino - Medical Animation
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Cirugía de cataratas: Extracción de cristalino e inserción de prótesis de cristalino - Medical Animation
Si usted tiene visión borrosa u otras complicaciones debido a una catarata en el lente del ojo cristalino, el médico puede recomendarle una cirugía para remover dicha catarata. El cristalino es un disco transparente que recibe la luz a través de la pupila y la enfoca sobre la retina para ayudarle a producir una imagen clara. El cristalino está compuesto principalmente de agua y proteínas. A medida que envejecemos, estas proteínas pueden comenzar a aglutinarse y opacan el cristalino. A esta opacidad se le llama catarata. Una catarata puede bloquear el ingreso de la luz a los ojos y provocar visión borrosa. Antes de la cirugía, se le aplicarán unas gotas para dilatar las pupilas y se lavará el área alrededor del ojo. En la mayoría de los casos, se le inyectará un anestésico local alrededor o detrás del ojo. También le pueden aplicar un sedante para ayudarlo a relajarse. La mayoría de las cirugías de catarata duran menos de una hora. El método más común para la extracción de las cataratas es la facoemulsificación. En este procedimiento, el cirujano, mirando a través de un microscopio quirúrgico, realiza una pequeña incisión a un lado de la córnea. El cirujano hace una abertura a través de la cápsula del cristalino y, mediante el uso de una sonda de ultrasonido, rompe el cristalino opaco en pequeños fragmentos. Acto seguido, el cirujano aspira estos fragmentos a través de la incisión. Luego, se inserta un lente intraocular artificial. Los lentes intraoculares están hechos de plástico, silicona o compuestos acrílicos y permanecerán colocados dentro del ojo por el resto de su vida. Generalmente, no se requieren puntos debido a que la incisión es muy pequeña. A menudo la visión mejora notablemente inmediatamente después de la cirugía. Después de la cirugía, se coloca un parche sobre el ojo y usted estará en observación durante un corto período de tiempo para asegurarse de que no se presenten problemas, como el sangrado. La cirugía de cataratas se realiza de forma ambulatoria, así que probablemente usted se irá a casa el mismo día. Debido a que la exposición a la luz brillante puede ser incómoda al principio, usted debe hacer los arreglos para que alguien lo lleve a casa.

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Pulley Watson King & Lischer
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