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Type 2 Diabetes - Medical Animation
 
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Type 2 Diabetes - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT:
Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which your blood sugar level is too high. After you eat foods that contain carbohydrates, chemicals in your small intestine break them down into single sugar molecules called glucose. Next, the cells lining your small intestine absorb the glucose, which passes into the bloodstream. When the blood reaches your pancreas, beta cells inside the pancreas detect the rising glucose levels. To reduce the glucose level, your beta cells release insulin into your bloodstream. As the blood circulates through your body, the insulin and glucose exit the bloodstream into your tissues to reach your body's cells. Most cells of the body have certain receptors on their surface that bind to the circulating insulin. Insulin acts like a key in a lock to open up the cell so that the circulating glucose can get inside the cell. Now, your cell can use the glucose to produce the energy it needs to function properly. If you have type 2 diabetes, either your pancreas does not produce enough insulin or your body's cells resist it's effects or both. If you have insulin resistance, your insulin cannot unlock the cells to let glucose in because the locks, called receptors, are abnormal or missing. As a result, glucose is locked out of your cells. Consequently, the amount of glucose builds up in your bloodstream in a condition called hyperglycemia. To compensate for hyperglycemia, your pancreas produces more and more insulin. Your overworked beta cells try to keep up with the demand, but gradually lose their ability to produce enough insulin. Due to hyperglycemia and the lack of insulin, you may experience the following classic symptoms of diabetes-- excessive hunger, excessive thirst, increased urine volume, and unexplained weight loss. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes that may appear over time include fatigue, recurrent infections, changes in vision, itching, and tingling or prickling sensations in your skin. Life threatening complications of type 2 diabetes include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome, and hypoglycemia. If you don't receive treatment for hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis can result. Because you no longer have enough insulin circulating in your blood, your cells can't get the glucose they need to produce energy. As a result, your body turns to fats and proteins as an alternative source of energy. During the fat breakdown process, certain byproducts, known as ketone bodies, accumulate in your blood, resulting in a condition called ketosis. If ketones build up to dangerously high levels in your bloodstream, you may develop diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, which can lead to coma and death. Another complication resulting from failure to treat hyperglycemia is called hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome, or HHNS. As the insulin deficiency continues, your blood glucose level increases. In response, your kidneys filter excess glucose out of the blood into urine, along with large amounts of water. Unless you consume large amounts of water, your kidneys cannot keep up with the demand of removing the glucose from your bloodstream and diluting it sufficiently in urine. As a result, your blood becomes much more concentrated than normal, a condition called hyperosmolarity. Hyperosmolarity pulls water out of your body tissues into your bloodstream, causing severe dehydration, which may lead to hyperosmolar hypoglycemic nonketotic syndrome. Neurological symptoms, such as seizures and coma, can occur. If you take an excessive dose of diabetic medication, you may experience an acute complication called hypoglycemia or insulin shock. Excessive insulin or oral hypoglycemic medication causes too much glucose to go into cells, leaving an insufficient amount in your bloodstream. Certain organs, such as the brain, need a constant energy supply to function properly. Because the brain's primary source of energy is glucose, it is the first organ affected by lower glucose levels. When your brain cells, called neurons, are starved for glucose, they start to malfunction, causing symptoms such as nervousness, shakiness, and confusion. If your glucose level continues to drop, the electrical activity of your neurons diminishes significantly, resulting in seizures or diabetic coma. Over time, chronic poorly controlled type 2 diabetes can cause degenerative tissue damage, resulting in long term complications such as atherosclerosis, blindness, neuropathy, and renal failure. To avoid the complications of type 2 diabetes, you can take steps to keep your glucose level within a normal range using a combination of blood glucose monitoring, a healthy diet, regular exercise, and medications as necessary. You will need to check the level of glucose in your blood frequently with a glucometer. To do this, you will prick your finger with a small needle called a lancet and place a drop of blood on the strip attached to the glucometer. Based on your blood glucose level, you may need to adjust your meals, physical activity, or medication dose. Eating a healthy diet will help to lower your glucose level when you eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, have meals and snacks about the same time every day, consume the right balance of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat, and minimize your intake of high sugar foods. Getting regular exercise-- even just 30 minutes a day-- will lower your blood glucose level, decrease insulin resistance, and may lead to weight loss. You may need to take one or more diabetic medications to help lower blood glucose. Some of these medications increase insulin production in your pancreas. Others decrease insulin resistance in your skeletal muscles. Some treatments increase insulin sensitivity in certain tissues. Others promote a slight decrease in absorption of glucose in your digestive system. If your type 2 diabetes cannot be controlled with diet, exercise, and oral medications, your doctor may prescribe insulin and train you to inject it just under your skin. By treating and controlling your blood glucose level, you may prevent the occurrence of complications from type 2 diabetes.

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What attorneys say about MLA and The Doe Report:
"Medical illustrations are essential during trial for any medical malpractice case. The people at MLA have the uncanny ability of creating medical illustrations that simplify the most complex of medical concepts and human anatomy to a lay audience. The exhibits of MLA allow experts to easily describe complex concepts and human anatomy in a manner that could not be done otherwise.

In addition, their custom illustrations show in great detail the extent of injuries suffered and the devastating effects they have had on the client's anatomy. These custom illustration can show, side by side, the body before and after a catastrophic injury. The effect of this juxtaposition is unmatched by any testimony that can be adduced at the time of trial.

Even jurors after trial have commented on the ease with which they grasp medical concepts and anatomy once the MLA exhibits were introduced and used by my experts. Even judges who have "seen it all" are thoroughly impressed by the detail and sophistication of the illustrations.

I would not want to try a case without them."

Lambros Y. Lambrou
McHUGH & LAMBROU, LLP
New York, NY

"The Doe Report is a visual feast of medical information for personal injury lawyers."

Aaron R. Larson, Esq.
President
ExpertLaw.com

"Thank you for the wonderful illustrations. The case resulted in a defense verdict last Friday. I know [our medical expert witness] presented some challenges for you and I appreciate how you were able to work with him."

Robert F. Donnelly
Goodman Allen & Filetti, PLLC
Richmond, VA

"I just wanted to let you know that after several days on trial, I settled [my client's] construction accident case for $4.5 million. Immediately after the jury was discharged, I spoke with several jurors who told me that they really appreciated the medical illustrations for their clarity in dealing with [my client's] devastating injuries. They also expressed their gratitude in being able to read from a distance all of the notations without difficulty. Obviously, the boards were visually persuasive. I am certain that this contributed to our successful result."

Michael Gunzburg, Esq.
Attorney at Law.
New York, NY













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