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Breast Cancer Progression and Staging - Medical Animation
 
This animation may only be used in support of a single legal proceeding and for no other purpose. Read our License Agreement for details. To license this animation for other purposes, click here.

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Breast Cancer Progression and Staging - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: The staging of breast cancer refers to the extent of the disease. The cancer stage is based on several factors, including the size of the tumor, if any lymph nodes are involved, if the cancer is invasive or non-invasive, and if the cancer has spread to areas beyond the breast. Stage 0 is considered a non-invasive breast cancer. In this there is no evidence that the cancer cells have spread into neighboring breast tissue beyond the duct or lobule. Stage I is considered an early stage of invasive breast cancer. When measured the tumor is no more than two centimeters in diameter, and there is no evidence that the cancer cells have spread beyond the breast. Stage II is divided into subcategories of IIA and IIB. Stage IIA is invasive breast cancer where the tumor is either a maximum of two centimeters in diameter and has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm, or the tumors between two and five centimeters in diameter but has not spread to any lymph nodes. Stage IIB is a little different in that the tumor is either between two and five centimeters and has spread to underarm lymph nodes. Or the tumor is larger than five centimeters but has not spread to the underarm lymph nodes. Stage III is considered a locally advanced cancer and it is also divided into subcategories of IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. There are two main scenarios that can occur with stage IIIA breast cancer. One, where the tumor is larger than five centimeters in diameter but it has spread to underarm lymph nodes that are growing into each other forming clumps. The cancer may also have spread to the lymph nodes near the breastbone. The second scenario for stage IIIA is very similar with the exception that the tumor is larger than five centimeters in diameter, and that the underarm lymph nodes are not adhered to one another or other tissues. Unlike the other stages, in stage IIIB the tumor may be any size and has spread into the skin of the breast or chest wall. This stage may also include lumps in the skin of the breast or swelling of the breast. In stage IIIC the tumor may also be of any size but it has also spread to lymph node areas above or below the clavicle, the chest wall, and/or the skin of the breast. Stage IV is considered distant metastatic cancer, meaning the cancer has spread to other organs and parts of the body.

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What attorneys say about MLA and The Doe Report:
"Thank you for the wonderful illustrations. The case resulted in a defense verdict last Friday. I know [our medical expert witness] presented some challenges for you and I appreciate how you were able to work with him."

Robert F. Donnelly
Goodman Allen & Filetti, PLLC
Richmond, VA

"Medical Legal Art has always performed quality and efficient work. The doctors that review the exhibits are always amazed at the precise descriptions and drawings."

Michael Beckman
Viles Law Firm, P.A.
Fort Meyers, FL

"Thank you for the splendid medical-legal art work you did for us in the case of a young girl who was blinded by a bb pellet. As a result of your graphic illustrations of this tragic injury, we were able to persuade the insurance company to increase their initial offer of $75,000.00 to $475,000.00, just short of their policy limits.

We simply wanted you to know how pleased we were with your work which, to repeat, was of superlative character, and to let you know that we would be more than willing to serve as a reference in case you ever need one. Many thanks for an extraordinary and dramatic depiction of a very serious injury which clearly "catapulted" the insurance company's offer to a "full and fair" amount to settle this case."

Philip C. Coulter
Coulter &Coulter
Roanoke, VA

"Our firm was able to settle our case at an all day mediation yesterday and I am confident that the detail and overall appearance of the medical illustrations significantly contributed to the settlement. When we require medical illustrations in the future, I will be sure to contact [MLA]."

Noel Turner, III
Burts, Turner, Rhodes & Thompson
Spartanburg, SC













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