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Biology: Chemistry in Biology: 13: Overview of Organic Compounds - Medical Animation
 
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Biology: Chemistry in Biology: 13: Overview of Organic Compounds - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: Today, we are going to be talking about organic compounds. Organic compounds are studied in biology because they are found in all living things. All organic compounds have the element carbon in them. In other words, all living organisms contain carbon. What's so special about the element, carbon? For one thing, no other element matches carbon's unique versatility to bond with other elements. Let's look at why this is true. For starters, carbon has an atomic number of six. That means that every atom of carbon has six protons in the nucleus. As an electrically neutral atom, carbon also has six electrons. Two core electrons are in the first energy level, which means it has four remaining valence electrons in the second energy level. Remember, valence electrons are those electrons available for bonding with other atoms. Accompanying these four electrons are four bonding sites, or four places that carbon can form bonds with other carbon atoms, or with atoms of other elements. Carbon's four valence electrons and four bonding sites allow it to form strong covalent bonds with many other elements, including hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Another feature of carbon atoms is they often form covalent bonds with other carbon atoms, to a nearly unlimited degree. This means that two carbon atoms can bond to one another, 50 carbon atoms can bond to one another, or even hundreds of carbon atoms can bond to one another. The ability of carbon atoms to bond to one another gives it the unique ability to shorten or lengthen a chain of carbon atoms to meet the very demands of the chemistry of life. So what kinds of molecules can carbon form? Well, small organic molecules called monomers are chemically bonded atoms that always include carbon. In addition to carbon, organic monomers usually contain hydrogen and oxygen, possibly along with nitrogen or phosphorus. Organic monomers often chemically bond to each other, joining together like beads on a string. This string of attached monomers will often continue to chemically bond with additional monomers, creating a much larger molecule, called a polymer. This process is called polymerization. Polymers may be made of different monomers or repeating units of the same monomer. Many organic polymers in the cells of living organisms are such large molecules that they're often referred to as macromolecules. DNA is an example of a macromolecule. Macro molecules can contain hundreds or even thousands of atoms. The four types of organic macromolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Although they are all very large molecules, each type of organic macromolecule is distinct and different from the others. We'll discuss these four types of macromolecules in more detail separately. To sum up, organic compounds are found in all living things. All organic compounds contain the element carbon. Carbon atoms have a unique ability to bond to other carbon atoms, as well as other elements, such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Organic monomers are chemically bonded atoms that always include carbon. Polymerization is the process of creating long molecules, called polymers, from multiple bonded monomers. And macromolecules are very large organic molecules. [music]

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Your work received the ultimate compliment at the conclusion of the mediation. The hospital risk manager took the exhibit with them at the conclusion of mediation, and will be using it to train nurses on how to prevent bed sores..."

Steven G. Koeppel
Troy, Yeslow & Koeppel, P.A.
Fort Myers, FL

"Your firm is great to work with and, most importantly for me, you get the job done on time and with the utmost professionalism. You should be proud of all those you employ, from KJ to Ben B. I've been especially pleased over the years with the work of Brian and Alice, both of whom seem to tolerate my idiosycratic compulsion to edit, but I've not found a bad apple in the bunch (and, as you know, I've used your firm a bunch!). I look forward to our continued professional relationship."

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"At 3 PM it hit me--I needed exhibits of a tracheostomy, a coronary artery bypass and a deep vein thrombosis--all in time for a for-trial video deposition the next day. The Doe Report had each exhibit on line. In addition, I ran across an exhibit I hadn't even thought of: reduced ejection fraction after a heart attack. Because this was a video deposition, I could use the e-mail version of the medical exhibit, print it on my color copier, and let the camera zoom in. For $400, less than one blow-up by one of The Doe Report's competitors, I got four first-rate exhibits in less than a day. The Doe Report saved me time and money."

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Pulley Watson King & Lischer
Durham, NC
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"I wanted to take some time out to let you know what a wonderful job you did with the 'collapsed lung/fractured rib' illustrations. They were both detailed and accurate. My medical expert was comfortable working with them and he spent at least an hour explaining to the jury the anatomy of the lungs, the ribs and the injuries depicted in the illustrations. Needless to say, the jury was riveted to the doctor during his testimony.

The jury returned a verdict for $800,000.00 and I'm sure we would not have done so well if not for the visualizations we were able to put forth with your assistance. Lastly, my special thanks to Alice [Senior Medical Illustrator] who stayed late on Friday night and patiently dealt with my last minute revisions."

Daniel J. Costello
Proner & Proner
New York, NY













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