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痤疮 - Medical Animation

 

This animation may only be used in support of a single legal proceeding and for no other purpose. Read our License Agreement for details. To license this image for other purposes, click here.

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痤疮 - Medical Animation
医疗动画文字记录:痤疮是一种可能发生在面部、颈部、胸部、肩部和背部的皮肤病。痤疮在青少年时期很常见,但在成年期也会受到影响。你的身体依赖于皮肤下面的皮脂腺保持头发和皮肤的润滑。这些腺体分泌一种叫做皮脂的油性物质,覆盖在皮肤和头发上,防止它们干燥。皮脂沿着毛囊,通过毛孔到达皮肤表面。毛囊经常脱落死皮细胞将皮脂带出你的身体。当身体产生多余的皮脂和死皮细胞时,它们会粘在一起,堵塞毛孔,导致皮肤瑕疵。然后,通常存在于皮肤上的少量细菌会在堵塞毛孔的皮脂中大量繁殖,导致炎症。痤疮的类型取决于堵塞的位置,如果你有炎症,痤疮可能会出现白头,这是由于堵塞的毛囊与空气隔绝导致的;黑头是堵塞的毛囊,当堵塞的东西暴露在空气中时颜色会变深,脓包通常被称为粉刺,这是发炎的毛囊被脓疱堵塞,或囊肿,则是更大的、疼痛的、充满脓疱的肿块,深入皮肤下。激素的变化,尤其是睾丸激素的增加,会导致皮脂分泌过量,这就是为什么痤疮经常发生在青少年时期。然而,它可以发生在任何年龄。导致痤疮的其他因素还有细菌、某些药物和基因。如果你有轻微的痤疮,医生可能会建议你使用含有几种有效成分之一的非处方乳液。过氧化苯甲酰,能杀死细菌,干燥多余的油脂,清除堵塞毛孔的死皮细胞。水杨酸,可以减缓皮肤细胞的流失,防止毛孔堵塞。它也可以分解白头和黑头。乳酸等果酸,有助于去除死皮细胞,减少炎症,刺激新的光滑皮肤的生长。硫磺,可以去除死皮细胞,干燥多余的油脂。这些都是强烈的化学物质,可能会刺激你的皮肤。应严格按照说明书使用。如果非处方药不起作用,皮肤科医生可能会给你开更强效的处方洗剂,比如维生素A,它可以减少毛孔中死皮细胞的堆积,局部抗生素可以杀死皮肤上的细菌,或者过氧化苯甲酰和局部抗生素联合使用。对于中度到重度的病例,医生可能会单独开口服药物或与局部治疗相结合。这些药物包括口服抗生素(可以杀死细菌,减轻炎症),以及只用于最严重病例的异维甲酸。注射皮质类固醇可以缓解疼痛,帮助清除特别大的病变。对于女性来说,可能会开一些含有雌激素的避孕药来减少睾丸激素的影响。不管医生建议的治疗方法是什么,良好的皮肤护理都是必不可少的。例如,每天用温和的肥皂清洗病变区域两次,轻轻清洗,不要用力擦洗。如果你的皮肤干燥或脱皮,使用无油水性保湿霜。当你选择涂抹在皮肤上的任何产品时,都要选择无油或不致粉刺的,这意味着它不会堵塞你的毛孔。避免抠或挤压粉刺,因为这些行为可能导致感染或留下瘢痕。避免用手、头发或手机等任何物体触碰你的脸。

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