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膀胱癌的治疗选择 - Medical Animation

 

This animation may only be used in support of a single legal proceeding and for no other purpose. Read our License Agreement for details. To license this image for other purposes, click here.

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膀胱癌的治疗选择 - Medical Animation
医学动画文字记录:你或你关心的人最近可能被诊断出患有膀胱癌。这段视频将帮助你了解一些可用的治疗方案。最常见的膀胱癌称为尿路上皮癌或移行细胞癌,是一种癌细胞形成于膀胱内壁组织的疾病。膀胱癌的治疗可能包括以下一种或多种:手术、放疗、化疗和免疫治疗。
膀胱癌的手术主要有两种:第一种是早期膀胱癌经尿道膀胱肿瘤切除术,或称经尿道膀胱肿瘤电灼术。在手术过程中,一个称为膀胱镜的发光管将被插入膀胱。然后,用金属圈将肿瘤切除。残存的肿瘤组织可通过电灼法烧掉。第二种手术叫做膀胱切除术,用于治疗已经扩散到膀胱壁的癌症。在膀胱部分切除术中,包含小肿瘤的部分膀胱壁将被切除。在这种类型的手术后,剩余的膀胱可能不能容纳足够的尿液。你可能需要经常排尿。在根治性膀胱切除术中,如果肿瘤很大或在膀胱的多个部位,膀胱将被全部切除。附近的组织,如淋巴结也将被切除。对于男性,要切除前列腺和精囊。对于女性,往往还会切除子宫、卵巢、输卵管和部分阴道。如果切除了膀胱,可以用一部分肠道作为尿液排出体外的通道。尿液会通过腹部的一个开口排入一个小袋子里,或者可以用肠道来做一个小袋子,在尿液通过腹部的开口之前用来储存尿液。在这种情况下,要把一根称为导尿管的小管子放入开口中,以便从尿袋中排空尿液。或者,如果保留了尿道,可以用一段肠道来作为新的膀胱,这样尿液就可以以正常的方式排出体外。另一种治疗方法是放射治疗。它使用辐射杀死癌细胞或阻止癌细胞生长。体外放射疗法使用体外的仪器,将辐射瞄准癌症。体内放射疗法使用能够产生辐射的放射源。放射源被放置在体内癌细胞内或癌细胞附近。化疗使用某些药物杀死癌细胞或阻止其生长。这些药物可以通过静脉注射治疗全身的癌细胞,也可以通过导管治疗膀胱内的癌细胞。化疗的实施方式取决于膀胱癌的进展情况。免疫疗法帮助免疫系统对抗癌症。癌细胞有时可以躲避攻击它们的免疫细胞。例如,癌症细胞和免疫细胞可能含有称为关卡蛋白的蛋白质。当它们黏附在一起时,免疫细胞就会停止攻击癌细胞。一些治疗膀胱癌的免疫治疗药物通过阻止关卡蛋白相互黏附而起作用。因此,免疫细胞可以攻击并破坏癌细胞。免疫疗法的另一个例子是卡介苗。它是由溶解在溶液中的一种细菌组成的。将卡介苗注入膀胱,在那里它会引发杀死癌细胞的反应。如果你对膀胱癌或任何药物治疗有疑问,请咨询医生。重要的是要遵医嘱服药,并报告任何可能的副作用。

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What attorneys say about MLA and The Doe Report:
"There is nothing like a great graphic depicting the real nature and extent of a victim's injuries to get full value for your client. I use Medical Legal Art for mediations as well as trial."

Geoff Wells
Greene, Broillet, Panish & Wheeler
Santa Monica, CA

"I have found that the personalized medical illustrations prepared by Medical Legal Art have been very accurate and helpful. The medical doctors, both treating physicians and expert witnesses, have commented on the accuracy and professionalism of the medical illustrations. Most importantly, your prompt service and attention upon even short notice has been tremendous. I can certainly say that the medical illustrations prepared by Medical Legal Art have assisted us in bringing cases to a successful resolution."

Paul L. Redfearn
The Redfearn Law Firm, P.C.
Kansas City, MO

"Thank you for the splendid medical-legal art work you did for us in the case of a young girl who was blinded by a bb pellet. As a result of your graphic illustrations of this tragic injury, we were able to persuade the insurance company to increase their initial offer of $75,000.00 to $475,000.00, just short of their policy limits.

We simply wanted you to know how pleased we were with your work which, to repeat, was of superlative character, and to let you know that we would be more than willing to serve as a reference in case you ever need one. Many thanks for an extraordinary and dramatic depiction of a very serious injury which clearly "catapulted" the insurance company's offer to a "full and fair" amount to settle this case."

Philip C. Coulter
Coulter &Coulter
Roanoke, VA

"I wanted to thank you for the terrific job you did illustrating my client's injuries. The case was settled at the pre-suit mediation, and I believe a good part of the success we had was due to the medical legal art you prepared.

Your work received the ultimate compliment at the conclusion of the mediation. The hospital risk manager took the exhibit with them at the conclusion of mediation, and will be using it to train nurses on how to prevent bed sores..."

Steven G. Koeppel
Troy, Yeslow & Koeppel, P.A.
Fort Myers, FL













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