Follow us On YouTube Follow us On FaceBook



or
Search Language
Browse
Medical Animations
Medical Animation Titles
Custom Legal Animations
Patient Health Articles
Most Recent Uploads
Body Systems/Regions
Anatomy & Physiology
Diseases & Conditions
Diagnostics & Surgery
Cells & Tissues
Cardiovascular System
Digestive System
Integumentary System
Nervous System
Reproductive System
Respiratory System
Back and Spine
Foot and Ankle
Head and Neck
Hip
Knee
Shoulder
Thorax
Medical Specialties
Cancer
Cardiology
Dentistry
Editorial
Neurology/Neurosurgery
Ob/Gyn
Orthopedics
Pediatrics
Account
Administrator Login

Biology: Genetics: 11: DNA and RNA - Transcription - Medical Animation

 

This animation may only be used in support of a single legal proceeding and for no other purpose. Read our License Agreement for details. To license this image for other purposes, click here.

Ready to License?

Item #NSV16039 — Source #1

Order by phone: (800) 338-5954

Biology: Genetics: 11: DNA and RNA - Transcription - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: Now, that we've covered DNA replication, let's talk about Transcription. The first thing you need to know is that transcription has nothing to do with cell replication processes, such as DNA replication, mitosis, or cell division. So what is transcription and why is it necessary? Well, transcription is the first step in the process of using the genetic code in DNA to synthesize or build all the different proteins in your body. One problem with synthesizing these proteins is that the instructions for making them are in the DNA, which is located inside the nucleus. But the place proteins are always made is outside the nucleus, either in the ribosomes floating in the cytoplasm, or in the ribosomes embedded in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. So, how does the genetic code for synthesizing proteins get from the DNA to the ribosome? DNA uses a messenger called messenger RNA or mRNA to carry the genetic code from the nucleus to the ribosome. The process of building this messenger RNA is called Transcription. Now, let's see how transcription happens. Transcription begins when an enzyme called RNA polymerase attaches to a segment of DNA called a gene. A gene contains the code to build a specific protein, which is a macromolecule made up of a sequence of amino acids in a specific order. And within a gene, the specific order of nitrogenous bases dictates the order of amino acids that will make up the protein. Each group of three consecutive bases in the gene is actually a code for a particular amino acid. As a result, each group is referred to as a codon. RNA polymerase causes a particular area of the DNA helix to unwind and separate into two strands. One of the strands, often called the template strand, is the side of DNA that is read or transcribed by the messenger RNA. The other strand of DNA, often called the non-template strand, isn't transcribed by the messenger RNA. So how are DNA instructions transcribed into messenger RNA? Well, using the template strand as a guide, RNA polymerase uses the base pair rule to assemble free nucleotides in the nucleus into a complementary strand of RNA. For example, RNA polymerase reads the DNA base thymine on the template strand then binds it to a free nucleotide containing adenine. This process continues with cytosine binding to guanine and guanine binding with cytosine. Remember though, RNA will never contain thymine. So, whenever RNA polymerase sees adenine on the DNA template strand, it pairs adenine with uracil. By using the template strand of DNA as a guide, the genetic code from the non-template strand of DNA has actually been transcribed into messenger RNA. When transcription is complete, the messenger RNA, which is small enough to fit through a nuclear pore, takes the genetic code out of the nucleus to the ribosome, the site of protein synthesis. The process of actually building the protein at the ribosome is called Translation, which we'll cover in a separate video. To summarize, transcription is the process of transcribing or copying the genetic code for building a protein into messenger RNA. A gene is a segment of DNA containing the instructions or code for building a protein. A codon is a group of three consecutive nitrogenous bases in a gene containing the code for a specific amino acid in a protein. RNA polymerase unwinds the strands of DNA in a gene. The template DNA strand contains the complementary bases that need to be read to generate messenger RNA. The base pair rule is followed when assembling messenger RNA. Messenger RNA is actually a copy of the DNA non-template strand with uracil substituted for thymine.

YOU MAY ALSO WANT TO REVIEW THESE ITEMS:
Dendritic Cell
Dendritic Cell - 3DSC13469d
Medical Illustration
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Protein Binds to T cell Receptors
Protein Binds to T cell Receptors - 3DSC13469b
Medical Illustration
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
T Cells
T Cells - 3DSC13469a
Medical Illustration
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
T cells and NK Cells ExpressTNF-alpha
T cells and NK Cells ExpressTNF-alpha - 3DSC13469e
Medical Illustration
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Polyprotein embedding in a Cell Membrane
Polyprotein embedding in a Cell Membrane - 3DSC00060b
Medical Illustration
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Macrophage Nucleus
Macrophage Nucleus - 3DSC11120c
Medical Illustration
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
What attorneys say about MLA and The Doe Report:
"Medical illustrations are essential during trial for any medical malpractice case. The people at MLA have the uncanny ability of creating medical illustrations that simplify the most complex of medical concepts and human anatomy to a lay audience. The exhibits of MLA allow experts to easily describe complex concepts and human anatomy in a manner that could not be done otherwise.

In addition, their custom illustrations show in great detail the extent of injuries suffered and the devastating effects they have had on the client's anatomy. These custom illustration can show, side by side, the body before and after a catastrophic injury. The effect of this juxtaposition is unmatched by any testimony that can be adduced at the time of trial.

Even jurors after trial have commented on the ease with which they grasp medical concepts and anatomy once the MLA exhibits were introduced and used by my experts. Even judges who have "seen it all" are thoroughly impressed by the detail and sophistication of the illustrations.

I would not want to try a case without them."

Lambros Y. Lambrou
McHUGH & LAMBROU, LLP
New York, NY

"I would like to thank all of you at Medical Legal Art for all the assistance you provided. It was a result of the excellent, timely work that we were able to conclude the case successfully.

I feel very confident that our paths will cross again."

Fritz G. Faerber
Faerber & Anderson, P.C.
St. Louis, MO

"Medical Legal Art wins our firm's highest accolades for professionalism and exhibit quality. In fact, many of the doctors I work with request color copies of your outstanding artwork to show to patients during the informed consent process."

Jeanne Dolan, BSRN, AlNC
Legal Nurse Consultant
Golden Valley, MN

"Our practice involves medical negligence cases exclusively. We have six attorneys and one physician on staff. We have used Medical Legal Art's staff for every one of our cases over the past 12 years and have found their services to be extraordinary. The transformation of medical records into powerful graphic images has without fail been handled expertly, expeditiously and effectively translating into superb results for our clients, both in the courtroom and in settlement. Every case can benefit from their excellent work and we unqualifiedly recommend their services. They are the best!"

Chris Otorowski
Morrow and Otorowski
Bainbridge Island, Washington
www.medilaw.com













Awards | Resources | Articles | Become an Affiliate | Free Medical Images | Pregnancy Videos
Credits | Jobs | Help | Medical Legal Blog | Find a Lawyer | Hospital Marketing