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|Biology: Chemistry in Biology: 15: Lipids - Medical Animation
|MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: Today, we're going to talk about lipids. Lipids are an integral part of every cell membrane in every living organism. Looking closer, you can see that lipids are part of the phospholipid membrane that is the boundary of every single cell. Most people think of lipids as fats, such as the fat in your body. Fats provide long-term energy storage and insulation in living organisms. But fats are just one type of lipid. Oils, waxes, and steroids are also types of lipids. Examples of steroids include cholesterol and hormones such as testosterone, which is produced in the testicles, and estrogen, which is produced in the ovaries. A common feature of all lipids is that they don't dissolve in water. So what makes something a lipid? All lipids are organic macromolecules. This means lipids are large molecules containing the element carbon. Lipids also contain hydrogen and oxygen. Organic macromolecules, such as lipids are formed by many units called monomers that are chemically bonded together. In lipids, the typical monomer is something called a fatty acid. A fatty acid contains a chain of carbon atoms attached to each other. Hydrogen atoms are also attached to these carbon atoms. You may recall that carbon can form up to four covalent bonds with other atoms. When each carbon atom forms two single bonds with adjacent carbon atoms and another two single bonds with adjacent hydrogen atoms, we call this fatty acid saturated. This means the fatty acid is saturated with all the hydrogen atoms it can possibly contain. Because of this structure, saturated fatty acids are straight molecules that can pack tightly together. As a result, saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Examples of saturated fats include lard and butter. In contrast, unsaturated fats are usually liquid at room temperature. These include things like vegetable oil and olive oil. So why are unsaturated fats liquid at room temperature? Well, unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double covalent bonds between carbon atoms. This means the unsaturated fatty acid has gaps in the hydrogen saturation. The carbon double bonds form kinks in the fatty acid, which prevent the molecules from packing together tightly. As a result, the more loosely packed molecules form a liquid instead of a solid at room temperature. Here's a tip to help you remember which type of fat is solid or liquid. Use the letter S at the beginning of the word saturated for solid at room temperature. Now that we've talked about fatty acids as lipid monomers, what is a lipid polymer? A lipid polymer, called a triglyceride, is formed when three fatty acids bond to a glycerol molecule. A triglyceride is saturated if it contains only saturated fatty acids. And a triglyceride is unsaturated if it contains any unsaturated fatty acids. To sum up, all living organisms use lipids in all of their cell membranes, as well as for long-term energy storage and insulation and in hormone formation. Lipids are organic macromolecules containing mostly carbon atoms, as well as hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Lipid monomers are fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen because their carbon atoms form only single bonds. As a result, saturated fats are solid at room temperature. In contrast, unsaturated fatty acids have gaps in their hydrogen saturation, because their carbon atoms form one or more double bonds. As a result, unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. Lipid polymers are called triglycerides. Saturated triglycerides contain only saturated fatty acids. Triglycerides are called unsaturated if they contain any unsaturated fatty acids.|
|What attorneys say about MLA and The Doe Report:
|"I wanted to take some time out to let you know what a wonderful job you did
with the 'collapsed lung/fractured rib' illustrations. They were both
detailed and accurate. My medical expert was comfortable working with them
and he spent at least an hour explaining to the jury the anatomy of the
lungs, the ribs and the injuries depicted in the illustrations. Needless to
say, the jury was riveted to the doctor during his testimony.
The jury returned a verdict for $800,000.00 and I'm sure we would not have
done so well if not for the visualizations we were able to put forth with
your assistance. Lastly, my special thanks to Alice [Senior Medical
Illustrator] who stayed late on Friday night and patiently dealt with my
last minute revisions."
Daniel J. Costello
Proner & Proner
New York, NY
|"Thank you for the splendid medical-legal art work you did for us in the
case of a young girl who was blinded by a bb pellet. As a result of your
graphic illustrations of this tragic injury, we were able to persuade the
insurance company to increase their initial offer of $75,000.00 to
$475,000.00, just short of their policy limits.
We simply wanted you to know how pleased we were with your work which, to
repeat, was of superlative character, and to let you know that we would be
more than willing to serve as a reference in case you ever need one. Many
thanks for an extraordinary and dramatic depiction of a very serious injury
which clearly "catapulted" the insurance company's offer to a "full and
fair" amount to settle this case."
Philip C. Coulter
|"[Your staff] was extremely efficient, cooperative and gracious and [their]
efforts produced a demonstrative exhibit that we used effectively throughout
our trial. The jury verdict of $3,165,000.00 was, in no small measure, due
to the impact of the demonstrative evidence. You may be sure that we will
David J. Dean
Sullivan Papain Block McGrath & Cannavo, P.C.
New York, NY
|"Whether it's demonstrating a rotator cuff tear, neck movement a few
milliseconds after rear impact, or a proposed lumbar fusion, the Doe Report
represents an instant on-line database of medical illustration for
health-care and legal professionals.
Illustrations can be purchased 'as is' or modified within hours and sent
either electronically or mounted on posterboard. An illustration is worth a
thousand words, as juries perk up and look intently to capture concepts
that are otherwise too abstract. Start with good illustrations, a clear and
direct voice, a view of the jury as 12 medical students on day one of
training, and your expert testimony becomes a pleasure, even on cross
examination. An experienced trial lawyer should also emphasize these
illustrations at the end of trial, as a means of visually reinforcing key
As a treating physician, I also use these accurate illustrations to educate
my own patients about their medical conditions. The Doe Report is an
invaluable resource, and its authors at MLA have always been a pleasure to
Richard E. Seroussi M.D., M.Sc.
Diplomate, American Boards of Electrodiagnostic Medicine and PM&R
Seattle Spine & Rehabilitation Medicine